Mar 10, 2017
Swedberg, Brian, and Donna Peuquet. "An Evaluation of a Visual Analytics Prototype for Calendar-Related Spatiotemporal Periodicity Detection and Analysis." Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization 52.1 (2017): 63-79.
"Visual analytics is frequently used to derive insight into spatiotemporal data sets (MacEachren and others 2011; Malik and others 2012; Razip and others 2014; Sum All and Humanitarian Tracker 2015), but past research has ignored linking localized contextual information"
Avvenuti, Marco, et al. "On the need of opening up crowdsourced emergency management systems." AI & SOCIETY (2017): 1-6.
"... contributes to its reduction. Collaborative projects like Wikipedia, HarassMap, Humanitarian Tracker, and Ushahidi are just but a few examples of “open” platforms that benefit from an active citizen participation."
Pavesi, Irene. "Tracking Conflict Related Deaths." (2017).
"... crowdsourcing. Syria Tracker's map of violent events, for example, combines data from media sources with information provided anonymously by civilians who use encrypted technology (Humanitarian Tracker 2016) ..."
Pavesi, Irene. "Tracking Conflict-related Deaths: A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring Systems." (2017).
... Syria Tracker's map of violent events, for example, combines information provided anonymously by civilians who use encrypted technology and by media sources (Humanitarian Tracker Syria Tracker Syria https://syriatracker.crowdmap.com ..."
Jewell, Nicholas P., Michael Spagat, and Britta Jewell. "Accounting for Civilian Casualties: From the Past to the Future."
"Syria Tracker, a project of Humanitarian Tracker (2016) supported by Ushahidi, is probably the most prominent current application of crowdsourcing methods to casualty accounting." "There are two main advantages of the crowdsourcing approach. First, data can be assembled in something close to real time, although this process can be slowed down by the necessity to crosscheck submitted reports. Second, use of the crowd can provide coverage of events that would, otherwise, be lost. Syria Tracker illustrates these advantages with its relatively up-to-date coverage of a country with little on-the-ground media because Syria is currently such a dangerous environment for journalists. As of August 2016, Syria Tracker had documented nearly 150,000 deaths occurring between March 18, 2011 and February 29, 2016."
Nov 24, 2016
Kaarbo, Juliet, and Daniel Kenealy. "Precedents, parliaments, and foreign policy: historical analogy in the House of Commons vote on Syria." West European Politics 40.1 (2017): 62-79.
Nov 3-4, 2016
Human Rights & Technology in the 21st Century, the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School "Digital networks are important to human rights monitoring and documentation in two ways: First, human rights groups can “mine” the vast amount of information found on social media platforms as they look for evidence of abuse. Alhinnawi and Kass-Hout described how Syria Tracker captures a steady stream of inputs that are crowd-sourced from people caught in the Syrian crisis, and from over 2,000 news sources and online content (Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, etc.). Syria Tracker displays this information on a digital map with layers of events tagged with meta data and arrayed geospatially and chronologically. Syria Tracker is sometimes referred to as the longest serving crisis map in existence. Quality control is essential. Only 6% of the 150,000 crowd sourced reports to date have been published. This low percentage highlights the strict standards for determining the validity of information received by Syria Tracker. Their reports cover killings, missing people, rape, use of chemical weapons, and refugees. It even helped report 47 massacres not recorded by the media or other humanitarian organizations."
Nov 1, 2016
Widmer, Mireille, and Irene Pavesi. Firearms and Violent Deaths. No. 60. Research Note, 2016.
"The proportion of firearm deaths varies across conflict-affected countries, as well as over time in a single conflict. Such fluctuations reflect changes in the intensity or type of warfare. In Syria, for example, fire-arms accounted for about 80 per cent of fatalities in the early months of the war, between March 2011 and January 2012, when overall fatalities remained well below 2,000 people per month (see Figure 3, Source: Humanitarian Tracker). As the war intensified, in mid-2012, artillery use increased and the proportion of deaths by gunshot dropped below 50 per cent. In the second half of 2012, and particularly from 2015, air bombardments also increased. From January 2015, the annual share of fatal gunshots dropped below 30 per cent of total fatalities, with air bombardments often claiming more lives than either small arms or artillery. Firearms can account for a significant proportion of violent deaths regardless of a country’s overall violent death rate."
Aug 19, 2016
By Hend Alhinnawi, Co-Founder, Humanitarian Tracker.
"Today, on World Humanitarian Day, I want to recognize the thousands of ordinary citizens in Syria have risked their lives to save others and tell the world what is happening on the ground in their country. Equipped with a cell phone, internet access, and a fierce determination to not be silenced, these men and women have achieved something incredible: they have made crowdsourced data an official source. This is the “Mosaic Data” effect, in which every single piece of data received tells us something about the bigger picture. Combining citizen and digital diplomacy for humanitarian tracking and response is not just important; it is necessary and critical to this continuing story of the Syria conflict."
Pilegaard, Jess. "Virtually Virtual? The New Frontiers of Diplomacy." (2016).
Jul 2, 2016
Rall, Katharina, et al. "Data Visualization for Human Rights Advocacy."Journal of Human Rights Practice 8.2 (2016): 171-197. Crowdsourced human rights information is submitted by witnesses, survivors, and advocates and presented on interactive maps that are increasingly inﬂuential in policy circles because they allow viewers to explore data in near real time (Humanitarian Tracker;Qayyam 2014).
Jun 10, 2016
Donnay, Karsten, and Ravi Bhavnani. "The Cutting Edge of Research on Peace and Conflict." Peace and Conflict (2016): 4-18.
Jun 3, 2016
Herrick, Drew. "The social side of ‘cyber power’? Social media and cyber operations." Cyber Conflict (CyCon), 2016 8th International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.
Jun 2, 2016
del Frate, Anna Alvazzi. "A Reflection on Women, Girls and Armed Violence."Women and Children as Victims and Offenders: Background, Prevention, Reintegration. Springer International Publishing, 2016. 539-557.
"Armed conflicts involve a large proportion of civilian casualties, many of them women and girls. Although the majority of casualties are males, the proportion of females killed is increasing. For example, in Syria the percentage of female victims increased from less than 1 % in April 2011 to over 13 % in March 2015 (Humanitarian Tracker 2015). Female victims in conflict include not only those who lose their lives in indiscriminate bombing or shooting, but also women and girls who are specifically targeted by sexual violence during warfare. Female victimization in conflict settings includes many types of violence, which may be directly or indirectly related to the conflict itself. Any type of hardship and deprivation, including conflict, increases the risk of exploitation of and violence against women. For example, during the 2014 Ebola crisis, cases of domestic and sexual violence dramatically increased in West Africa (IRC 2014). Women are particularly affected and rarely protected in these situations. Rape is frequently endemic in conflict settings. Perpetrators of violence are civilians, combatants of the opposite or the same faction, as well as peacekeepers. Statistics are scarce, and largely depend on the existence of structures to provide assistance and shelter to victims, which also function as surveillance and reporting mechanisms."
Balcilar, Mehmet. Syrian refugees in Turkey and the experience of war. Working paper, 2016.
Apr 19, 2016
Finch, Kathryn C., et al. "Public health implications of social media use during natural disasters, environmental disasters, and other environmental concerns." Natural Hazards 83.1 (2016): 729-760.
"According to Syria tracker, the tool improved sensitivity of information collection by helping them detect several important events (eg, massacres, explosions, and gunfire) before they were reported by other sources. ..."
April 15, 2016
Sandoval-Martín, Teresa, and Óscar Espiritusanto. "GEOLOCALIZACIÓN DE INFORMACIÓN Y MAPEO DE DATOS EN PERIODISMO ONLINE CON USHAHIDI." El profesional de la información 25, no. 3 (2016): 458-472.
"Desde 2011 está en constante actualización Syria tracker, un proyecto de Humanitarian Tracker sobre abusos y ataques que sufre el pueblo sirio a diario. Es el mapa más activo de la plataforma con 5.614 reportes recibidos hasta la fecha"
Bittner, Christian, Boris Michel, and Cate Turk. "Turning the spotlight on the crowd: Examining the participatory ethics and practices of crisis mapping."ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 15.1 (2016): 207-229.
Bittner, Christian, Boris Michel, and Cate Turk. "Turning the Spotlight on the Crowd: Examining the Participatory Ethics and Practices of Crisis Mapping." ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 15.1 (2016): 207-229.
Conflicts Dynamic International "Humanitarian Tracker has applied them same process to crowdsource and map humanitarian needs in the Syrian conflict since 2011, which can help humanitarians focus their efforts to gain access."
Picón Gómez, Ana. "La voz necesaria: mujer y periodismo de guerra: análisis de un periodismo de guerra en desaparición desde una perspectiva de género y la ruptura del discurso androcéntrico." (2016).
"En el caso de los conflictos armados, este fenómeno cobra especial protagonismo, y no son pocas las veces que encontramos grabaciones, fotografías e información que los medios consiguen a través de estos mal llamados reporteros ciudadanos. El escenario bélico que nos interesa, Siria, es un buen ejemplo de la importancia que tiene este periodismo en la actualidad. La revista Time publicaba en octubre del 2014 un artículo denominado Citizen Journalists Playing a Crucial Role in Syrian War, donde señala que algunos de los informes más influyentes recibidos para informar de los ataques contra la estratégica ciudad siria de Kobani y del conflicto sirio en general, “no están surgiendo de los medios de información convencionales”, sino de los “periodistas ciudadanos”. Además de la creación de diferentes webs y plataformas virtuales donde los ciudadanos informan de lo que está pasando en la guerra siria (Comités de Coordinación Local de Siria, Syria Tracker, Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently). Muchas personas sirias, ante la censura y situación del país, han desarrollado habilidades periodísticas para informar al mundo entero y hasta se han convertido en fuentes fiables para importantes medios internacionales como New York Times, AP y Reuters, entre otros. Ejemplo es Rami Abdul Rahman (seudónimo) que creó un Observatorio Sirio para los Derechos Humanos donde un total de cuatro hombres los que recopilan la información enviada por más de 200 activistas en el terreno."
Smith, Kendra L., Isabel Ramos, and Kevin C. Desouza. "ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AND CROWDSOURCING PLATFORMS." Revista de Gestão da Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação 12.3 (2015), Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management: 595-626.
October 29, 2015
A living collection of articles and links about data visualisation – for the RDF event on Data Vis. "Syria Tracker – Humanitarian Tracker This dashboard uses data sent by mobile phones to document and map human rights abuses in Syria."
Select Publically Available Conflict and Violence Datasets- National Typology Overview (October, 2015) including Syria Tracker dataset
September 30, 2015
McPherson, Ella. "ICTs and Human Rights Practice." (2015).
"In 2011, Humanitarian Tracker adopted Ushahidi to power Syria Tracker. Its team, made up of activists in Syria and the U.S., maps reports related to the conflict, such as deaths, detentions, chemical poisonings, and rape. These reports include information extracted using data-mining from more than 80 million social media posts and 160,000 media reports, as well as more than 4,000 eyewitness reports. The latter incorporates crowdsourced information submitted via the project’s website as well as information from more than 600 amateur reporters on the ground in Syria. Before making reports public, the team verifies them via corroboration of time and place with other reports, which means that published reports make up only 6% of all the reports collected by Syria Tracker."
Tajaldin, B., Almilaji, K., Langton, P., & Sparrow, A. (2015). Defining polio: closing the gap in global surveillance. Annals of global health, 81(3), 386-395.
Ref 31: Humanitarian Tracker, SumAll Foundation, Assistance Coordination Unit. Analysis of Syria polio vaccination. Humanitarian Tracker, Arlington, VA; 2014 (Available at:)http://www.humanitariantracker.org/#!analysis-of-syria-polio-vaccination/cj0r. (Accessed June 14, 2014).
May 15, 2015
Williams, Christopher. Doing International Research: Global and Local Methods. SAGE, 2015.
April 16, 2015
Secretariat, Geneva Declaration. Global Burden of Armed Violence 2015: Every Body Counts. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
The 2015 edition of the Global Burden of Armed Violence provides a wealth of data relevant to security and the post-2015 sustainable development framework. Humanitarian Tracker is referenced as one of the open data sources.
Mar 3, 2015
Kaarbo, Juliet, and Daniel Kenealy. "No, prime minister: explaining the House of Commons’ vote on intervention in Syria." European Security 25.1 (2016): 28-48.
January 15, 2015
Schmitt, Michael, et al. "Crisis Mapping. Eine empirische Untersuchung zu Strukturen und Praktiken partizipativer Krisen-und Konfliktkartographien während der Umbrüche in Libyen und Syrien 2011–2013." Mitteilungen der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 60.1 (2015): 57-76.
Die Entwicklungen des Web-2.0 erlauben neue Wege der Herstellung, Verbreitung und Nutzung geographischer Informationen. Crisis Mapping kommt im Kontext von Krisen und Katastrophen zum Einsatz und setzt auf die Partizipation von Betroffenen vor Ort und weiteren Freiwilligen. In dieser Arbeit werden Strukturen und Praktiken des Crisis Mapping anhand vier exemplarischer Kartenprojekte untersucht, die während der politischen Umbrüche in Libyen und Syrien seit 2011 entstanden sind.
January 1, 2015
BY: Jane Kalista International | Protect Education in Insecurity and Conflict (PEIC) | Education Above All Foundation
"SyriaTracker, which uses a combination of crowdsourcing tools to capture information from citizen journalists and data mining tools to scan online media and social media reports"
November 25, 2014
Tuckwood, Christopher. "The State of the Field: Technology for Atrocity Response." Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal 8.3 (2014): 9.
The rapid rise of internet usage also means that data gathering can happen without the active participation of those producing the data. For example, while crowdsourcing and crowd seeding require people to directly and actively submit data to a given project, data mining or web mining are automated methods of gathering data which observe online activity. One example of this is Syria Tracker, which is a crisis mapping project that presents a geographical visualization of thousands of human rights violations and killings during the current civil war in Syria.
November 15, 2014
Tomaszewski, Brian. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Disaster Management. Crc Press, 2014.
October 28, 2014
SumAll.org used Ayasdi software to perform a quick systemic cluster analysis of a Polio vaccination campaign for Syrian children. The data was provided by HumanitarianTracker.org and was complex in that it contained patient, temporal and geographical data – but was fluid given the study area was an active warzone.
This humanitarian effort in a conflict zone reaches millions of people per campaign, however, there is a need to quickly and easily understand which locations are most impacted from the constantly fluctuating refugee population. This is especially important, as follow-on doses are necessary for the Polio vaccine to be effective in protecting the population.
October 17, 2014
Li, Xi, and Deren Li. "Can night-time light images play a role in evaluating the Syrian Crisis?." International Journal of Remote Sensing 35.18 (2014): 6648-6661.
The Syria Tracker provides geographic information system maps to record locations of deaths during the crisis (https://syriatracker.crowdmap.com/). Currently, witness reports are the main source for Syrian crisis evaluation. ...
September 12, 2014
Kass-Hout, who is trained in biostatistics and also has an MD, hoped to create a platform for witnesses of crises to report on them directly through a secure Internet portal. He works with a team of volunteer social scientists to visualize data and verify user-generated content on crisis in the world. For one project in particular, called Syria Tracker, this team has used tweets, videos and photos from sources on the ground to crowdmap the extensive casualties of Syria’s civil war.
July 15, 2014
Rogstadius, Jakob. "Enhancing Disaster Situational Awareness Through Scalable Curation of Social Media." (2014).
June 3, 2014
Although the United Nations ceased publishing information on casualtiesearlier this year, several civil society organisations working within Syria, along the Syrian border, and around the world continue to collect, compile and disseminate detailed casualty information relating to the conflict. While the casualty figures produced by the UK based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights are most often cited in the media, Every Casualty would like to draw attention to the impressive recording efforts undertaken by a number of other organisations including the Syrian Center for Statistics and Research (CSR-SY), Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR), Syria Tracker (ST), Syria Shuhada (SS), and the Violations Documentation Center (VDC).
June 2, 2014
Riel, Arthur J., Denisa Popescu, and Luisita Guanlao. "Social Data Mining and Knowledge Flows Between Government and its Citizenry in Crisis and Normal Situations." Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics (WIMS14). ACM, 2014.
Baker, Vicky. "Syria’s inside track: Mapping citizen reporting." Index on Censorship 43.2 (2014): 93-95.
May 3, 2014
The strong correlations observed in the article suggest that crowdsourcing methodologies used by organisations monitoring killings, such as Syria Tracker, during the Syrian conflict can effectively capture variations in conflict intensity over time.
April 18, 2014
KILCULLEN, DAVID, and NATE ROSENBLATT. "The Rise of Syria’s Urban Poor: Why the War for Syria’s Future Will."
April 15, 2014
This report examines the headstamps of 70 different types of small calibre ammunition and analyses images of cartridge types, packaging, and contextual information such as weapons systems and combatants. Syria Tracker was one of the open source data used in this report.
April 30, 2014
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is made up of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the National Societies.
Digital mapping is now an integral part of emergency response. Can internet-based digital crisis maps also help to document or even prevent war crimes?
March 20, 2014
The percentage of female casualties due to the conflict in Syria has been steadily rising since April, 2011. This alarming trend can be seen clearly where the percentage of female deaths per month is recorded (data covers March 2011 – March 13, 2014 and is provided by Humanitarian Tracker.) Although there are some oscillations within the data, the overall percentage of female casualties has risen from less than 1% in April, 2011, to over 13% present day.
March 18, 2014
The sheer volume of data and information available in times of crises has increased substantially since the launch of the ‘data revolution.’ This data, be it reported by bystanders or collected via machine, can illuminate the real human impact of crises in exciting, and sometimes disheartening, ways. This is certainly the case for the Crisis in Syria, a topic that the team from SumAll Foundation has been working on since 2013 in collaboration with Humanitarian Tracker. Together, our teams are developing a dashboard that analyzes causes of death from the Syrian civil war for use by both journalists and the general public.
March 12, 2014
In this report from the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) PeaceTech Initiative, a team of scholars from George Washington University and American University, analyze the role of social media in Syria’s civil war and highlight the work done by Syria Tracker: " Syria Tracker is another online resource developed by a group of Syrian activists early in the coniflct that uses “a combination of automated data mining and crowdsourced human intelligence” to document Syrian deaths and human rights abuses. It primarily used English language sources, including news articles and blog posts, and supplemented this reporting with an on the ground network, accessed virtually through “field based eyewitness reports shared via webform, email, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and voicemail.” Syria Tracker team then geotagged and coded the reports. They claim to be “able to verify almost 90% of the documented killings mapped on their platform thanks to video and/or photographic evidence.""
March 4, 2014
Crowdsourcing #Syria Crisis Since 2011: Humanitarian Tracker's flagship project, Syria Tracker, is the longest standing crowdsource effort and one of the most trusted sources of information on Syria since the conflict broke out in March 2011. Humanitarian Tracker; a global non-profit forum that connects and empowers citizens using innovation in technology to support humanitarian causes.
January 14, 2014
Ushahidi—or “testimony” in Swahili—has played a central role in coordinating responses to crises around the globe, including Syria using Syria Tracker.
December 15, 2013
Shiel, Annie. "Conflict Crowdsourcing: Harnessing the power of crowdsourcing for organizations working in conflict." (2013).
Crisis mapping actors such as DHN and Humanitarian Tracker make extensive use of data mining,
December 13, 2013
11,420 children killed (1 in 10 deaths) in Syria conflict. Syria Tracker is one of the data sources used in the analysis showing 7 in 10 children killed by explosive weapons, boys are twice as likely to be killed as girls, deliberately targeting children while waiting in breadlines or attending school, bombed in their homes, 764 have been summarily executed and tortured, 79 infants killed by small arms, and 154 boys under the age of 13 killed by sniper fire (85 under the age of 8.)
December 3, 2013
Harnessing the power of crowdsourcing for organizations working in conflict and the potential for a crowdsourced portal for conflict-related information. By Annie Shiel "Crowdsourcing continues to be a valuable tool in the current conflict in Syria, including crisis mapping tools like Syria Tracker10 and a number of blogs that have emerged to analyze raw conflict-related data from YouTube, Twitter, and other social and open-source media
November 22, 2013
Larrauri, Helena Puig, and Anne Kahl. "Technology for peacebuilding."Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2.3 (2013).
November 20, 2013
Meier, Patrick. "Human computation for disaster response." Handbook of Human Computation. Springer New York, 2013. 95-104.
The Future. As William Gibson famously noted, “The future is already here—it's just not evenly
distributed.” To get a glimpse of what the future holds for the use of human computation in disaster
response, one should look back 2 years at the launch of SyriaTracker
August 27, 2013
Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.
May 15, 2013
De Juan, Alexander, and André Bank. The effects of regime cooptation on the geographical distribution of violence: evidence from the Syrian civil war. No. 222. GIGA Working Papers, 2013.
We used the data from an open, online platform by Humanitarian Tracker – a nonpolitical, nonpartisan organization.
March 8, 2013
Epidemiology pioneered crowdsourcing with data from "informal" sources such as Internet keyword searches in the first decade of the 21st century, gaining insights before data from traditional sources such as sentinel providers could be compiled. Now, a veteran of those online biosurveillance efforts has applied his expertise with crowdsourcing to catalog the effects of political strife, combining platforms developed for epidemiological compilation and crisis reporting to createHumanitarian Tracker.
January 13, 2013
Łatek, Maciej M., Seyed M. Mussavi Rizi, and Armando Geller. "Verification through calibration: an approach and a case study of a model of conflict in Syria." In Proceedings of the 2013 Winter Simulation Conference: Simulation: Making Decisions in a Complex World, pp. 1649-1660. IEEE Press, 2013.
May 9, 2012
Meier, Patrick. "Crisis mapping in action: How open source software and global volunteer networks are changing the world, one map at a time." Journal of Map & Geography Libraries 8.2 (2012): 89-100.
In April 2011, a team of Syrian activists from the Diaspora set up SyriaTracker, a live crisis map to document the many human rights abuses http://SyriaTracker.crowdmap.com