del Frate, Anna Alvazzi. "A Reflection on Women, Girls and Armed Violence."Women and Children as Victims and Offenders: Background, Prevention, Reintegration. Springer International Publishing, 2016. 539-557.
"Armed conflicts involve a large proportion of civilian casualties, many of them women and girls. Although the majority of casualties are males, the proportion of females killed is increasing. For example, in Syria the percentage of female victims increased from less than 1 % in April 2011 to over 13 % in March 2015 (Humanitarian Tracker 2015). Female victims in conflict include not only those who lose their lives in indiscriminate bombing or shooting, but also women and girls who are specifically targeted by sexual violence during warfare. Female victimization in conflict settings includes many types of violence, which may be directly or indirectly related to the conflict itself. Any type of hardship and deprivation, including conflict, increases the risk of exploitation of and violence against women. For example, during the 2014 Ebola crisis, cases of domestic and sexual violence dramatically increased in West Africa (IRC 2014). Women are particularly affected and rarely protected in these situations. Rape is frequently endemic in conflict settings. Perpetrators of violence are civilians, combatants of the opposite or the same faction, as well as peacekeepers. Statistics are scarce, and largely depend on the existence of structures to provide assistance and shelter to victims, which also function as surveillance and reporting mechanisms."